Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

13. Tax Provision

13. Tax Provision
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2021
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Tax Provision

13. Tax Provision


The following table summarizes the Company’s income tax expense and effective tax rates for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020:


    Three Months Ended March 31,  
    2021     2020  
Income (Loss) before Income Taxes     (3,192,891 )     (1,379,310 )
Income Tax Expense     456,614        
Effective Tax Rate     -14.30%       0%  


The Company has computed its provision for income taxes under the discrete method which treats the year-to-date period as if it were the annual period and determines the income tax expense or benefit on that basis. The discrete method is applied when application of the estimated annual effective tax rate is impractical because it is not possible to reliably estimate the annual effective tax rate. We believe that, at this time, the use of this discrete method is more appropriate than the annual effective tax rate method as the estimated annual effective tax rate method is not reliable due to the high degree of uncertainty in estimating annual pre-tax income due to the early growth stage of the business.


Due to its cannabis operations, the Company is subject to the limitations of Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) Section 280E under which the Company is only allowed to deduct expenses directly related to sales of product. This results in permanent differences between ordinary and necessary business expenses deemed non-allowable under IRC Section 280E.


The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2021 varied from the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to IRC Section 280E. The Company acquired plant-touching cannabis operations during 2020 and 2021 and these plant-touching operations are subject to the limitations of IRC Section 280E. As of March 31, 2020, the Company had not yet acquired these cannabis plant-touching operations and the Company was not subject to IRC Section 280E.


In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company's valuation allowance represents the amount of tax benefits that are likely to not be realized. Management assesses the need for a valuation allowance each period and continues to have a full valuation allowance on its deferred tax assets as of March 31, 2021.


The Federal statute of limitation remains open for the 2017 tax year to present. The state statute of limitation remains open for the 2016 tax year to present.